This has to be a universal problem.
The solution is to instill a love of learning and knowledge at a very early age and keep the flame burning throughout the learning process.
The problem with that 'solution' is how? In many early learning societies there is the culture of them (the teachers) and us (the students). Every class has its complement of clever little so-and-sos who play on that culture and do their best to undermine the teaching / learning process and many students and teachers become frustrated and swamped in the rituals of test learning, a teacher response to unrelenting negative pressure from students.
A multifaceted approach is needed. One facet is classroom discipline - if a child is disruptive deal with him/her separately from non disruptive students. I don't mean that in a negative sense - the disruptive child probably has a problem with the system or with his home or his peers. That child needs to have those issues addressed. Another facet is to train teachers properly - and to motivate them properly, so they can instill a love of learning in their students as well as pass on the practical knowledge needed to pass tests. To do this they need a love of learning themselves. Still another facet is to stop treating students as if they are juvenile delinquents, by definition beyond redemption. Too much talking down is done, without addressing the students as small adults with built in choices to switch on or off in the classroom. Part of all, I suppose, is a careful evaluation of curricula. Speaking from personal experience, by the age of 12 I was totally absorbed in nuclear physics, and consumed Scientific American magazines with as much avidity as my fellows consumed comics. My school experience reflected not one jot of my interest, which eventually died for a lack of opportunity to express it and learn more of it. Yet another part is teacher evaluation and the role of teachers' unions and the rights of the students to receive the education they are paying for, be it through fees or taxes.
Those efforts have to be sustained at every level of the education process. This is a tall order and probably only possible if applied consistently over time.
Speaking now as a parent with graduate / post graduate children (on the cusp, actually) we had to educate our children in spite of the best efforts of the education system to de-motivate them. We had to try to instill the love of learning that they were not getting from their school environments. Choice of school was important, but not all have any choices at all, some in the world don't have any education at all, particularly amongst girls in rural areas of many feudal societies. Even in the best of circumstances not all parents have that level of interest. That sort of motivation really should come from the schools and from the classrooms and be part of teaching ethics.
Tomorrow we solve world poverty, world hunger, drug abuse, sexual abuse of girls and women, corrupt government, nuclear proliferation and global warming. Easy peasy